Skip to main content
  1. Family: Zamiaceae Horan.
    1. Genus: Encephalartos Lehm.
      1. Encephalartos gratus Prain

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Malawi to Mozambique.

    [FZ]

    Cycadaceae, John Lewis. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

    Habit
    Trunk globose or (especially in male plants) up to 1.2 m. tall.
    Leaves
    Leaves up to 2 m. long, somewhat recurved; median leaflets up to 25 cm. long, narrowly lanceolate, straight or slightly falcate, oblique at the base, margin with 1–5 short spiniferous teeth on each side which are aggregated towards the base; leaflets reducing in size and becoming narrowly ovate towards the leaf-base, ultimately reduced to short spines; petiole about 10 cm. long.
    Cones
    Male cones up to 40 x 9 cm., fusiform, reddish-brown; peduncle up to 19 cm. long; median cone-scales ascending with deflexed heads; head truncate-deltoid in outline with very distinctly angular edges, terminal facet flat, rhomboid. Female cones up to 68 x 20 cm., broadest near the base, brown; peduncle c. 12 cm. long; median cone-scales straight with only the terminal facet slightly deflexed, head dorsiventrally compressed, broadly truncate-triangular in outline and with the external margin curved convexly and with a median flat, denticulate, backwardly directed extension abaxially, the external faces of the head smooth and puberulous on both surfaces.
    Male
    Male cones up to 40 x 9 cm., fusiform, reddish-brown; peduncle up to 19 cm. long; median cone-scales ascending with deflexed heads; head truncate-deltoid in outline with very distinctly angular edges, terminal facet flat, rhomboid.
    Female
    Female cones up to 68 x 20 cm., broadest near the base, brown; peduncle c. 12 cm. long; median cone-scales straight with only the terminal facet slightly deflexed, head dorsiventrally compressed, broadly truncate-triangular in outline and with the external margin curved convexly and with a median flat, denticulate, backwardly directed extension abaxially, the external faces of the head smooth and puberulous on both surfaces.
    Seeds
    Seeds up to 4 x 2 cm. ellipsoid, red.
    [EDGE]

    Forest, F. et al. 2018. Gymnosperms on the EDGE. Scientific Reports 8: 6053. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-24365-4.

    Conservation
    Encephalartos gratus is rated as Vulnerable (VU) according to IUCN Red List criteria and has received a EDGE score of -1.33, which places it in position 451 on the EDGE Gymnosperm list. It has a Evolutionary Distinctiveness of 5.31, ranked 556. More information on the EDGE Gymnosperm project here https://www.edgeofexistence.org.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Malawi, Mozambique

    Other Data

    Encephalartos gratus Prain appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 22, 2014 Davy, E.W. [417], Malawi K001092652 holotype
    Sep 22, 2014 Davy, E.W. [417], Malawi K001092653 holotype
    Sep 22, 2014 Davy, E.W. [417], Malawi K001092654 holotype
    Apr 7, 1982 Blackmore, S. [861], Malawi K000210607
    Jan 1, 1956 Greenway, P. [6283], Malawi K000210650
    Jan 1, 1956 Greenway, P. [6283], Malawi K000210649
    Brummitt, R.K. [15024], Malawi K000210606
    Brummitt, R.K. [15024], Malawi K000210605
    Brummitt, R.K. [15024], Malawi K000210603
    Brummitt, R.K. [15024], Malawi K000210604
    William, R.G.M. [s.n.], Malawi K000210595
    William, R.G.M. [s.n.], Malawi K000210594
    Heenan, D. [s.n.], Malawi K000210602
    Ayres, G.C. [s.n.], Malawi K000210610
    Ayres, G.C. [s.n.], Malawi K000210609
    Ayres, G.C. [s.n.], Malawi K000210608
    Ayres, G.C. [s.n.], Malawi K000210601
    Ayres, G.C. [s.n.], Malawi K000210600
    Ayres, G.C. [s.n.], Malawi K000210599
    Harris, Leslie [HBC563], Malawi K000210598
    Harris, Leslie [HBC563], Malawi K000210597
    Harris, Leslie [HBC563], Malawi K000210596

    Bibliography

    First published in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1916: 181 (1916)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.

    Sources

    EDGE Gymnosperms
    EDGE of Existence (Gymnosperms)
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0