1. Family: Araceae Juss.
    1. Zamioculcas Schott

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is E. Tropical to S. Africa.

    [CATE]

    CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

    Habitat
    Tropical moist forest, savannas; geophytes on forest floor or in stony ground.
    Distribution
    E. Trop. to S. Africa.
    General Description
    HABIT : seasonally dormant or evergreen herbs with short, very thick rhizome. LEAVES : few to many, erect, leaflets deciduous during dormancy leaving persistent petiole. PETIOLE : terete, base greatly thickened and succulent, geniculate at apex, sheath ligulate, free almost to the base, very short, inconspicuous. BLADE : pinnatisect, leaflets oblong-elliptic, thickly coriaceous, capable of rooting at base once shed and forming new plants; primary lateral veins of each leaflet pinnate, running into marginal vein, higher order venation reticulate. INFLORESCENCE : 1-2 in each floral sympodium, held at ground level. PEDUNCLE : very short. SPATHE : entirely persistent to fruiting stage, slightly constricted between tube and blade, green without, whitish within, tube convolute, blade longer than tube, expanded and horizontally reflexed at anthesis. SPADIX : sessile, female zone subcylindric, separated from male zone by short constricted zone bearing sterile flowers, male zone cylindric, ellipsoid to clavate, fertile to apex. FLOWERS : unisexual, perigoniate; tepals 4, in two whorls, decussate. MALE FLOWER : tepals subprismatic, apex thickened, stamens 4, shorter than tepals, filaments free, oblong, thick, somewhat flattened, anthers introrse, connective slender, thecae ovate-ellipsoid, dehiscing by apical slit, pistillode clavate, equalling tepals. POLLEN : extruded in strands, extended monosulcate to perhaps fully zonate, ellipsoid, large (mean 60 µm.), exine thick, fossulate-foveolate, apertural exine verrucate. STERILE FLOWERS : each consisting of 4 tepals surrounding a clavate pistillode. FEMALE FLOWER : tepals strongly thickened apically, staminodes lacking, gynoecium equalling tepals, ovary ovoid, 2-locular, ovules 1 per locule, hemianatropous, funicle short, placenta axile near base of septum, style attenuate, stigma large, discoid-capitate. BERRY : depressed-globose with furrow at septum, 1-2-seeded, surrounded by persistent tepals, white, infructescence ellipsoid. SEED : ellipsoid, testa smooth, brown, raphe conspicuous, embryo large, rich in starch, endosperm nearly absent, present only as a few cell layers at chalazal end.
    Diagnostic
    Seasonally dormant or evergreen, rhizomatous geophytes; petiole geniculate apically, base greatly thickened and succulent; ultimate leaflets thick, fine venation reticulate; spathe with convolute tube and spreading blade; spadix constricted between male and female zones; flowers unisexual, perigoniate. Differs from Gonatopus in leaf blades pinnatisect ( Gonatopus bi- to quadripinnatifid) and free stamens.
    [FTEA]

    Araceae, S.J. Mayo. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

    Habit
    Fleshy seasonally-dormant herbs with stem reduced to a stout, ± rhizomatous underground tuber
    Leaves
    Leaves erect, 1–several, subtended by several basal cataphylls; petiole stout, fleshy, pulvinate in upper half, base massively swollen and persistent in dormant phase; blade compound, pinnate; leaflets distant, fleshy, eventually deciduous, propagating vegetatively by formation of tuber at leaflet-base
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences 1–2, appearing with leaves, borne at leaf-base near ground-level, subtended by several cataphylls Spathe convolute basally forming short tube, upper part expanded, spreading or reflexed Spadix ± equalling spathe, lower part enclosed by spathe-tube, bearing pistillate flowers, separated from staminate part by short constricted part bearing sterile flowers, upper exposed part bearing staminate flowers
    Flowers
    Flowers unisexual, each with perigon of 4 decussate, subprismatic, subcucullate, fleshy tepals Staminate flower: stamens 4, shorter than tepals; filaments free, oblong, thick, fleshy; anthers with slender connective, dehiscing by lateral slits; central pistillode clavate, stipitate, equalling tepals Pistillate flower: staminodes lacking; pistil ovoid, tapering to short style, equalling tepals; ovary 2-locular; ovules solitary in each locule; placentation axile, near base of septum; stigma discoid
    Male
    Staminate flower: stamens 4, shorter than tepals; filaments free, oblong, thick, fleshy; anthers with slender connective, dehiscing by lateral slits; central pistillode clavate, stipitate, equalling tepals
    Female
    Pistillate flower: staminodes lacking; pistil ovoid, tapering to short style, equalling tepals; ovary 2-locular; ovules solitary in each locule; placentation axile, near base of septum; stigma discoid
    Fruits
    Berries borne in ellipsoid infructescence, 1–2-seeded
    Seeds
    Seeds lacking endosperm (?).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zimbabwe

    Zamioculcas Schott appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Syn. Aroid.: 71 (1856)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    CATE Araceae
    • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2008. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Engl. in E.P. 21 (IV. 23B): 304 (1905)
    • Syn. Aroid.: 71 (1856)

    Sources

    CATE Araceae
    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0