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  1. Family: Araceae Juss.
    1. Bucephalandra Schott

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Borneo.


    CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.

    General Description
    HABIT : small evergreen herbs, stem creeping, apex upright. LEAVES : numerous. PETIOLE : sheath with long marcescent ligule. BLADE : elliptic, elliptic-oblong, linear-oblanceolate to obovate, coriaceous, punctate below, apex with tubular mucro; primary lateral veins pinnate, running into distinct marginal vein, higher order venation parallel-pinnate. INFLORESCENCE : solitary. PEDUNCLE : subequal to petiole at anthesis, elongating later. SPATHE : ellipsoid, cuspidate, not constricted, lower part light green, convolute, broadly funnel-shaped, persistent, enclosing developing fruits, upper part white, gaping at anthesis, caducous immediately afterwards. SPADIX : shorter than spathe, with a few sterile flowers at extreme base, female zone cylindric, narrower than upper parts, with gynoecia in 2-6 spirals, separated from male zone by a few rows (mostly 2) of flattened, smooth, scale-like staminodes, male zone with 2-5 rows of flowers, terminal sterile zone globose or ellipsoid to subcylindric, composed of truncate, obpyramidal to subcylindric, apically papillose sterile male flowers, the uppermost ± connate. FLOWERS : unisexual, perigone absent. MALE FLOWER : 1-androus, filament distinct but short, flattened, connective ± inconspicuous, thecae ellipsoid, extrorse, dehiscing by pore at tip of conspicuous apical horn. POLLEN : extruded in a droplet, inaperturate, ellipsoid, medium-sized (mean 29 µm., range 28-30 x 20-24 µm.), exine smooth (psilate). FEMALE FLOWER : gynoecium depressed-globose, 1-locular, ovules many, orthotropous, attenuate towards micropyle, funicle distinct, placenta basal, stigma sessile, discoid, slightly concave in centre, narrower than ovary. BERRY : globose to ellipsoid with numerous seeds. SEED : narrow-ellipsoid, with long, curved micropylar appendage, testa very slightly longitudinally ribbed to scabrous, embryo straight, elongate, endosperm copious.
    Tropical humid forest; rheophytes.
    Minute to medium sized evergreen rheophytes; petiole sheath with long marcescent ligule; leaf blade simple, elliptic to linear-oblanceolate, apex with tubular mucro, fine venation parallel-pinnate; spathe persistent in lower half, upper part caducous; spadix with terminal appendix of staminodes; thecae horned; stigma smaller than ovary. Differs from Phymatarum in unconstricted spathe, flattened sterile flowers between male and female flowers and smooth or verrucose male flowers.



    Accepted Species


    Other Data

    Bucephalandra Schott appears in other Kew resources:


    First published in Gen. Aroid.: t. 56 (1858)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.


    CATE Araceae
    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.