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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Africa to Indo-China, Australia to New Caledonia.
Carissa spinarum L.

[FZ]

Apocynaceae, A. J. M. Leeuwenberg & F. K. Kupicha et al. Flora Zambesiaca 7:2. 1985

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or small trees, much branched, sometimes scandent, with simple or forked spines.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in terminal corymbs or 1–5-flowered cymes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx lobes imbricate, free to base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla hypocrateriform; tube cylindrical, ± straight, hairy within; lobes contorted, overlapping either to the left or the right, of various shapes, much shorter than to longer than the tube.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted at the middle or towards the top of the corolla tube; anthers subsessile, without carina, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary glabrous, bicarpellate, with 1–4 or rarely many ovules per loculus; style slender; stigma below or reaching to androecium, bilobed, glabrous; clavuncle often inconspicuous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit an ellipsoid or ovoid berry containing (l)2–8(∞) seeds.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds discoid or compressed-ellipsoid, velutinous.

[FTEA]

Apocynaceae, E.A. Omino. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2002

Morphology General Habit
Much branched shrubs, sometimes scandent, with simple or forked spines; stipules absent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, petiolate; blade ovate to suborbicular, with or without a mucro at the apex, entire or slightly crenate at the margin
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a terminal corymb or cyme, dense to lax
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 5- rarely 4-merous, fragrant
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals imbricate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla pink outside, white inside; tube cylindrical; lobes contorted, overlapping to the left or right
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens included, free from the style, inserted at the middle or towards the apex of the corolla tube
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary glabrous, 2-celled, with 1–4 or rarely many ovules per locule; style terete; pistil head of two parts, a subglobose or ellipsoid basal stigmatic part and a bilobed stigmoid apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit an ellipsoid or ovoid berry with 1–8 seeds.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or small trees, with simple or forked paired spines; latex white
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in terminal cymes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla salver-shaped; tube cylindrical, hairy within; lobes overlapping either to the left or the right in bud
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corona
Corona absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted at the middle or towards the top of the corolla-tube; anthers glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary of 2 united carpels, with 1–4 or rarely many ovules per cell; stigmatic head usually inconspicuous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit an ellipsoid or ovoid berry containing usually 2–8 seeds.
Distribution
Genus of about 10 species in Africa, Asia, and Australia.

Native to:

Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Arizona, Ascension, Bahamas, China Southeast, El Salvador, Hainan, Hawaii, Honduras, Jamaica, Jawa, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Mexico Central, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Taiwan, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is.

Carissa L. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Mant. Pl. 1: 7 (1767)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 4, 1: 88. Nom. cons.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Mant. Pl.: 7, 52 (1767), nom. conserv.
  • Markgraf in Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 15: 455 (1942).
  • Pichon in Mém. Mus. Nation. Hist. Nat., N.S. 24: 130 (1948) pro parte excl. Sect. Acokanthera (G. Don) Pichon.
  • Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 2: 189 (1767)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]
  • Leeuwenberg & van Dilst in Wageningen Univ. Pap. 2001(1): 1–109 (2001).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Kupicha in F.Z. 7, 2: 398–404 (1985)
  • Leeuwenberg & van Dilst in Wageningen Univ. Pap. 01.1: 1–109 (2001)
  • Mant. Pl. Alt. 7: 52 (1767), nom. conserv.
  • Syst. Nat., ed.12, 2: 189 (1767)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0