Skip to main content
This genus is accepted, and its native range is Dry Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar, India.
Syncolostemon rotundifolius

[LKGF]

Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or herbs, often geoxylic, usually aromatic
Morphology Stem
Stems branched
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence thyrsoid with cymes sessile, 1-3-flowered
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts caducous, coloured, but small and inconspicuous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tubular, straight or curving slightly upwards, 5-lobed, either radially symmetrical with lobes ± equal, lanceolate or strongly 2-lipped (1/4), lobes unequal, posterior rounded, not decurrent, nor strongly curving upwards, lateral lobes deltoid, ante
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla strongly 2-lipped, 5-lobed (4/1), white, pink or purple, posterior lip ascending with median lobes smaller and exceeding lateral lobes, usually truncate, anterior lip horizontal or slightly deflexed, slightly concave, corolla-tube straight or slig
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, exserted, posterior pair attached just below midpoint, ciliate or glabrous, inappendiculate, anterior attached at corolla throat, connate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style bifid to clavate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma-lobes equal, linear or more rounded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disc 4-lobed with anterior lobe larger, nutlets ovoid, smooth with a prominent dorsal vein, mucilaginous or not.
Note
Ten species.  Syncolostemon is very closely related to Hemizygia, but differs consistently in the lack of a decurrent posterior calyx-lip.  The genera may need to be merged
Distribution
South Africa and Zimbabwe
Ecology
Grassland or forest margins, often in rocky areas

[FTEA]

Lamiaceae (Labiatae), A.J. Paton, G. Bramley, O. Ryding, R.M. Polhill, Y.B. Harvey, M. Iwarsson, F. Willis, P.B. Phillipson, K. Balkwill, C.W. Lukhoba, D.F. Otieno, & R.M. Harley. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

Morphology General Habit
Aromatic, perennial or annual herbs, woody herbs or suffrutices
Morphology Stem
Stems erect or decumbent, branching above, often woody at base
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, petiolate or subsessile
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite, arranged in 6-flowered verticils disposed in an usually lax inflorescence; bracts small or large and coloured forming an apical coma
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx persistent, horizontal or downward-pointing, shortly tubular, bilabiate; posterior lip broadly ovate, entire, shortly decurrent on the tube; anterior lip with 4 subulate teeth, the median pair usually longer than the lateral pair and often curving upwards; in fruit posterior lip accrescent, throat open, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white to pink or white marked with pink, bilabiate, posterior lip erect, shallowly 4-lobed, lobes often slightly revolute, anterior lip large, entire, horizontal or deflexed; throat truncate with lobes of the posterior lip very short; tube straight or slightly curved, exceeding calyx; interior glabrous or with hairs at base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, declinate, ± equal, inappendiculate, posterior often shorter in younger flowers, exserted; posterior pair ciliate or subglabrous, attached 1/3 of way up tube from base; anterior filaments contiguous at insertion at throat of corolla, connate for most of length; anthers dorsifixed, synthecous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk with anterior lobe slightly larger
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary glabrous; stigma capitate, bifid, lobes short, rounded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlets 4 or less as not all develop, brown, smooth with a dorsal vein, ovoid with a small basal scar, producing mucilage when wet or not; embryo straight; seed exalbuminous.
Note
Hemizygia has been previously recognized as a genus, though several authors have commented on its close affinity to Syncolostemon and identified intermediate species. Otieno et al. (2006) demonstrate that Hemizygia is not a monophyletic group and that it is difficult to separate morphologically from Syncolostemon. However, an expanded Syncolostemon including Hemizygia is monophyletic and can be easily diagnosed by the fused anterior staminal filaments.

[LKGF]

Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or herbs, often geoxylic, usually aromatic
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence thyrsoid with cymes sessile, 1-3-flowered
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts usually caducous, brightly coloured at apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx shortly tubular, straight or curving slightly upwards, strongly 2-lipped, 5-lobed (1/4), lobes unequal, posterior rounded, decurrent, accrescent, curving upwards, lateral lobes deltoid, anterior subulate, throat open
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla strongly 2-lipped, 5-lobed (4/1), white, pink or purple, posterior lip ascending with median lobes smaller and exceeding lateral lobes, usually truncate, anterior lip horizontal or slightly deflexed, slightly concave, tube straight or slightly cur
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, exserted, or very rarely posterior pair included, these attached just below midpoint, ciliate or glabrous, inappendiculate, anterior pair attached at corolla throat, connate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style bifid to clavate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma-lobes equal, linear or more rounded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disc 4-lobed with anterior lobe larger
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlets ovoid, smooth with prominent dorsal vein, mucilaginous or not.
Note
2n = 28.  Thirty species
Distribution
Mainly in Southern Africa, a few in tropical Africa, one in Madagascar and one in India.
Ecology
Open grassy areas or forest margins often in rocky or sandy areas.

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Free State, India, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Senegal, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Syncolostemon E.Mey. ex Benth. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in E.H.F.Meyer, Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 230 (1838)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R., Harvey, Y., Iwarsson, M., Willis, F., Phillipson, P., Balkwill, K., Lukhoba, C., Otiend, D & Harley (2009). Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-430.

Literature

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Bothalia 12: 21 (1976)
  • E. Mey., Comment. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 230 (1837)
  • F.S.A. 28 (4): 185 (1985)
  • Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Fl. Pl. 7: 260 (2004)
  • Otieno et al. in Taxon 55: 941–958 (2006)
  • Pl. Evol. Syst. 261: 19–38 (2006)

Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets

  • Bouetia A.Chev., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 58(8): 200 (1911).,(1917).
  • Codd, Bothalia 12: 21-27 (1976), rev.
  • Harley RM, Atkins S, Budantsev AL, Cantino PD, Conn BJ, Grayer R, Harley MM, de Kok RPJ, Krestovskaja T, Morales R, Paton AJ, Ryding O, and Upson T. 2004. Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Sp
  • Hemizygia (Benth.) Briq. in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3a): 368 (1897).
  • Paton, Kew Bull. 53: 483-485 (1998).
  • Syncolostemon E. Mey. ex Benth. in E.Mey, Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 230 (1837)

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets
Nina Davies, Gemma Bramley and Don Kirkup, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0