1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Leonotis (Pers.) R.Br.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Africa, Indian Subcontinent.

    [LKGF]

    Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

    Habit
    Tall herbs, shrubs or rarely small trees, with simple hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, usually toothed
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence thyrsoid, cymes many-flowered, rarely long-pedunculate
    Bracteoles
    Bracteoles spiny
    Flowers
    Flowers large (17-50 mm long)
    Calyx
    Calyx ± zygomorphic to almost 2-lipped, 8-10-lobed, usually spinescent
    Corolla
    Corolla strongly 2-lipped, 4-lobed (1/3), posterior lip long, hooded, bearded and densely pubescent outside, with reddish, orange or cream hairs, anterior lip shorter than posterior, deflexed, soon withering
    Stamens
    Stamens not or only shortly exserted from corolla, thecae weakly distinct
    Stigma
    Stigma-lobes strongly unequal, upper lobe minute or apparently absent
    Fruits
    Nutlets oblong-trigonous, obliquely truncate and with sessile glands at apex.
    Note
    2n = 24, 26, 28.  About ten species. Apparently derived from within Leucas (Ryding 1998).
    Ecology
    Mostly hill slopes and rocky or disturbed ground
    Distribution
    Tropical and Southern Africa, L. nepetifolia (L.) R. Br. introduced as a weed elsewhere in the tropics.
    [FTEA]

    Lamiaceae (Labiatae), A.J. Paton, G. Bramley, O. Ryding, R.M. Polhill, Y.B. Harvey, M. Iwarsson, F. Willis, P.B. Phillipson, K. Balkwill, C.W. Lukhoba, D.F. Otieno, & R.M. Harley. Leonotis, M Iwarsson & YB Harve. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs to 8 m tall
    Stem
    Stems quadrangular, occasionally rounded at base, pubescent, nodes thicker than internodes, often with prominent leaf scars
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate or occasionally sessile, margins crenate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of 1–5 verticils per shoot; verticils dense, spherical to ellipsoid, manyflowered; bracts leaf-like; bracteoles linear, mucronate
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular, 10-veined, 8–10-toothed; teeth triangular, mucronate
    Corolla
    Corolla tubular, 2-lipped, white or faintly pink, covered by red, orange, yellow, buff (or sometimes white) hairs; tube with 1–3 basal rings of hairs within; posterior corolla lip entire, slightly shorter than the tube, curved inwards at apex (hooded), with a fringe of long hairs within at the apex covering the anthers and stigma, occasionally coloured white; anterior lip 3-lobed, considerably shorter than the posterior lip, darker than the rest of the corolla, reflexed to patent, subglabrous, shrivelled or reflexed on corolla tube; median lobe occasionally longer than the outer lobes
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, inserted at the mouth of the corolla, didynamous, the lower pair longer; thecae 2, divaricate
    Disc
    Disk ventrally enlarged
    Ovary
    Ovary deeply 4-lobed; style gynobasic, not bifid, anterior branch only developed, posterior branch minute or absent; dorsal stigma surface sessile
    Fruits
    Nutlets dark or pale brown, obconic, 3-angled in transverse section, distally truncate, with sessile glands, otherwise glabrous.
    Note
    L. leonurus (L.) R. Br. (from South Africa) and L. nepetifolia are cultivated throughout the world. The shape and colour of the corolla is adapted to pollination by sunbirds.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Argentina Northeast, Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cambodia, Canary Is., China South-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Jawa, Leeward Is., Malaya, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Seychelles, Society Is., Southwest Caribbean, St.Helena, Sumatera, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Windward Is.

    Leonotis (Pers.) R.Br. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland.: 504 (1810)

    Accepted by

    • Iwarsson, M. & Harvey, Y. (2003). Monograph of the genus Leonotis (Pers.) R.Br. (Lamiaceae) Kew Bulletin 58: 597-645.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 5: 490.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 7: 227 (2004)
    • K.B. 58: 597–645 (2003)
    • Prodr.: 504 (1810)
    Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets
    • Harley RM, Atkins S, Budantsev AL, Cantino PD, Conn BJ, Grayer R, Harley MM, de Kok RPJ, Krestovskaja T, Morales R, Paton AJ, Ryding O, and Upson T. 2004. Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Sp
    • Ryding, O. (1998). Phylogeny of the Leucas group (Lamiaceae). Systematic Botany, 235-247.
    • Iwarsson, Fl. Southern Africa 28, 4: 31-38 (1985).
    • Hemisodon Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 88 (1837).
    • Leonotis (Pers.) R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl.: 504 (1810)
    • Phlomis L. sect. Leonotis Pers. (1807).
    • Leonurus Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4 (1754), nom. illeg.

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets
    Nina Davies, Gemma Bramley and Don Kirkup, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0