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This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa to Indian Subcontinent.

[FZ]

Boraginaceae, E. S. Martins (Trichodesma by R. K. Brummit). Flora Zambesiaca 7:4. 1990

Morphology General Habit
A shrub usually up to 4 m. or a bushy tree up to 8 m. high; branchlets angular, fulvous-tomentellous to subglabrous when young, glabrescent, often cream becoming grey or brown and lenticellate with age.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, subopposite or alternate; petiole 0.3–1.0(1.5) cm. long usually with some long pale hairs; lamina 3–9 x 1.0–4.5 cm., narrowly obovate to elliptic, rarely oblanceolate, with minute bulbous-based appressed or slightly ascending hairs and sometimes with scattered white bristles to subglabrous but often dotted with groups of cystoliths above, with minute bulbous-based hairs appressed in all directions or pubescent to subglabrous but usually with dense long hairs on the axils of the secondary nerves and along the midrib (sometimes not much evident) below, obtuse to rounded and sometimes retuse at apex, acute to obtuse and often slightly asymmetrical at base, margins entire to crenate or serrate to the upper half, papery to leathery, greyish-green or yellowish-green, with 5–7 secondary nerves on each side of the midrib.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle 1.5–6.0 cm. long, little-branched, terminal or axillary; rhachis and branches minutely fulvous-tomentose with scattered long pale hairs to pubescent, often glabrescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers male on pedicels 0.5–1.5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 4–5 mm. long, narrowly campanulate, irregularly 3–5-toothed, pubescent or minutely fulvous-tomentose outside, strigose inside.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, glabrous; tube 2.5–4.0 mm. long, cylindrical; lobes 4, 3.0–4.0 x 1.2–2.0 mm., oblong to narrowly obovate, rounded at apex, reflexed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, inserted at the corolla-throat; filaments 2–3 mm. long, glabrous; anthers c. 1.5 mm. long, oblong.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary c. 2 mm. long, ovoid, glabrous; style 5–7 mm. long, first-forked at 2.0–2.5 mm. and with stigmatic branches 2–3 mm. long, clavate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 12–15 x 8–11 mm., ovoid or ellipsoid, apiculate, glabrous, yellow, orange or reddish when ripe, surrounded at the lower third by the widely enlarged, usually cream, campanulate calyx; mesocarp fleshy; pyrene c. 8 x 7 mm., ± rhomboidal or quadrangular in cross section, 1–3 seeded.

[FTEA]

Boraginaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

Morphology General Habit
Tangled shrub or usually a spreading often several-stemmed tree 3–10(–12) m. tall; young stems ridged, slightly pubescent; young bark pale, smooth but later brownish grey or yellowish brown to almost black, densely longitudinally fissured and very rough; innovations often ± velvety, fawn-coloured.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades typically narrowly oblong-elliptic or oblanceolate to oblanceolate-obovate, mostly rather longer than in species 16, 1.5–11 cm. long, 0.6–4 cm. wide, rounded at the apex, rounded to cuneate at the base, entire or crenate near apex or rarely crenate all round, glabrous to pubescent and sometimes slightly scabrid above, nearly always with longer hairs in the nerve-axils and along the midrib beneath; occasionally somewhat asperous on both surfaces; petiole distinctly developed, up to 1.3(–1.8) cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers sweet-scented in rather laxer panicles than in species 16, 6.5 × 7 cm.; peduncles and secondary axes up to 1.5–3 cm. long; pedicels 2 mm. long. Female:corolla-lobes 3–4 mm. long, 1.3–1.5 mm. wide; filaments 2.2 mm. long; style 2.5 mm. long with branches 2 mm. long and stigmatic branches 2–4 mm. long. Male:corolla-lobes oblong, 4.5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide; filaments exserted 3.5 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx glabrous to pubescent outside; tube cylindric-campanulate, 4–4.2 mm. long including 0.5–1 mm. long low rounded lobes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla creamy white; tube 5 mm. long.
sex Male
Male:corolla-lobes oblong, 4.5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide; filaments exserted 3.5 mm.
sex Female
Female:corolla-lobes 3–4 mm. long, 1.3–1.5 mm. wide; filaments 2.2 mm. long; style 2.5 mm. long with branches 2 mm. long and stigmatic branches 2–4 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit yellow, orange or bright red, 0.7–1.3 cm. long, 7–9 mm. wide, mucilaginous and edible.
Figures
Fig. 4/8, 9, p.16.
Habitat
Mainly riverine, in tree belt or tangled scrub, sometimes in scrub and open thorn-bush of Acacia, Commiphora, etc. subject to inundation, ground-water forest; 0–1800 m.
Distribution
K1 K2 K4 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U2

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree up to 12 m tall; young branchlets ± densely pubescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite or subopposite, rarely alternate; blade oblanceolate-oblong or oblong, 1.8–11.8 x 0.5–4 cm, attenuate to cuneate at the base, obtuse to rounded or rarely notched at the apex, entire to coarsely crenate, ± densely pubescent on both surfaces, not or only slightly scabrid, practically always with tufts of long soft hairs in the axils beween midrib and main lateral veins beneath; petiole 3–18 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers scented, bisexual or sometimes functionally unisexual, in lax ± pubescent inflorescences
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tubular-campanulate, 3–5.5 mm long, ± densely pubescent outside, 3–5(–6)-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla whitish or cream; tube 4.5–5 mm long; lobes 4(–5)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4(–5); male flowers with rudimentary pistillode
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style with 0.5–2.5 mm long stigmatic branches
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Fruiting calyx
Fruiting calyx funnel- or cup-shaped, 3–4.9 x 5.2 x 8.5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupe orange when ripe, ovoid or narrowly ovoid, tapering towards apex, 7–10 x 5.6–7.9 mm.
Distribution
N2, 3; C2; S2, 3 Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan, Egypt, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania, extending to western and southern tropical Africa, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, India and Sri Lanka
Ecology
Altitude range 0–700 m.
Vernacular
Mareer, mareer docol (Somali).
Note
Often cultivated and naturalised and the species has obviously attained its area of distribution partly due to man.

[FWTA]

Boraginaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
A shrub or small tree up to 16 ft.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
White flowers 1/4 in. long in rather small pubescent cymes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Ovoid, pointed fruits on a saucer-shaped calyx.

Native to:

Algeria, Angola, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, India, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Extinct in:

Socotra

Cordia sinensis Lam. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2012 Congdon, T.C.E. [765], Tanzania K000823870
Jan 1, 1988 Schimper [789], Ethiopia K000418670
Milne-Redhead, E. [11233], Tanzania Cordia rothii 28447.000

First published in Tabl. Encycl. 1: 423 (1792)

Accepted by

  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1991). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Boraginaceae: 1-124.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Launert, E. & Pope, G.V. (eds.) (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 1-114. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by A. M. Warfa [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Martins in Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 69 (1990), pro parte.
  • Warfa, Nordic Journ. Bot. 9: 649, figs. 1,2 (1990).
  • Warfa, Acta Univ. Upsal. 174, V: 2, fig. 1, 2 (1988)
  • Täckh., Student’s Fl. Egypt, ed. 2: 436, t. 152 (1974).
  • Meikle in Israel Journ. Bot. 20: 22 (1971).
  • Heine in Adansonia, sér. 2, 8: 186 (1968).
  • I.M. Johnston in Journ. Arn. Arb. 32: 11 (1951).
  • Poir. in Encycl. Méth. Bot. 7: 49 (1806).
  • Lam., Tab. Encycl. 1:423 (1792).

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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