1. Family: Loranthaceae Juss.
    1. Tapinanthus (Blume) Rchb.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

    [FTEA]

    Loranthaceae, Polhill & D. Wiens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1999

    Habit
    Shrubs, mostly 0.5–2 m. from a single haustorial connection; twigs slightly compressed at first, soon terete, glabrous to puberulous or velvety with small simple hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves mostly opposite, sessile to petiolate; lateral nerves spreading, usually some of the lower ones more strongly ascending
    Flowers
    Flowers 2–16 in umbels, 5-merous; umbels in axils or clustered at older nodes, shortly pedunculate, perulate; bracts saucer-shaped to cupular with a small triangular limb
    Calyx
    Calyx saucer-shaped to cupular or occasionally shortly tubular, almost entire, sometimes split by the expanding corolla
    Corolla
    Corolla-tube much longer than the lobes, opening with a V-split, usually pink to purplish, sometimes spotted white; bud-head greenish to white, darkening at maturity, commonly angled, ribbed, winged or appendaged; basal swelling well formed; lobes attenuate to spathulate, reflexed or elsewhere sometimes erect
    Stamens
    Filaments inserted near top of corolla-tube, short, linear, inflexed to inrolled; tooth distinct, 0.5–1 mm. long; anthers 4-thecous, short, (1.2–)2–3.5 mm. long, with a broad connective slightly produced at the apex
    Pistil
    Style swollen opposite the filaments, constricted above; stigma small, obovoid to capitate, 0.4–1 mm. across
    Fruits
    Berry oblong-ellipsoid to globose, often somewhat urceolate to the persistent calyx, smooth to papillose, usually ripening red.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Stamens
    Stamen filaments inserted near top of corolla tube, short, linear, inflexed to inrolled; tooth distinct, 0.5–1 mm long; anthers 4-thecous, short, (1.2)2–3.5 mm long, with a broad connective slightly produced at the apex Stamen filaments inserted near top of corolla tube, short, linear, inflexed to inrolled; tooth distinct, 0.5–1 mm long; anthers 4-thecous, short, (1.2)2–3.5 mm long, with a broad connective slightly produced at the apex.
    Style
    Style swollen opposite filaments, constricted above; stigma small, 0.4–1 mm across, obovoid to capitate
    Fruits
    Berry usually ripening red, oblong-ellipsoid to globose, often somewhat urceolate to protraction just below persistent calyx, smooth to papillose. Berry usually ripening red, oblong-ellipsoid to globose, often somewhat urceolate to protraction just below persistent calyx, smooth to papillose.
    Note
    The genus is restricted here to the species in Sprague's section Constrictiflori (excluding some referred to Agelanthus). These species are characterized by an apical swelling of the corolla bud that darkens and often secretes nectar at the sutures at maturity as a signal to birds to peck it and release a targeted spray of pollen from the relatively small anthers, the corolla lobes generally reflexing. The anatomical structure of the style is also significantly different from the genera previously included in Tapinanthus that develop vents when the buds mature. As a consequence of the bud head being a signal to pollinators, it has become modified to a considerable extent with wings and appendages. Unfortunately much of the obvious variation occurs within natural polymorphic species, such as T. dependens, and limits its use to distinguish species, although the modifications often show some ecogeographic pattern. In fact the species in the Flora Zambesiaca area, apart from T. erectotruncatus which belongs to a W African group, all have very similar flowers. The distinctions between the species, based on somewhat labile features, principally hairiness, leaf-shape and calyx development, are unclear in a number of places where the ranges abut or overlap.
    Distribution
    30 species in tropical and southern Africa, one species extending to north Yemen, virtually absent from the Somali-Masai region, but commonly encountered in a wide range of associations elsewhere.
    Habit
    Shrubs, mostly extending 0.5–2 m from a single haustorial connection; twigs slightly compressed at first, soon terete, glabrous to puberulous or velvety with small simple hairs. Shrubs, mostly extending 0.5–2 m from a single haustorial connection; twigs slightly compressed at first, soon terete, glabrous to puberulous or velvety with small simple hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves mostly opposite, sessile to petiolate; lateral nerves spreading, usually some of the lower ones more strongly ascending. Leaves mostly opposite, sessile to petiolate; lateral nerves spreading, usually some of the lower ones more strongly ascending
    Flowers
    Flowers 2–16 in umbels, 5-merous; umbels in axils or clustered at older nodes, shortly pedunculate, perulate; bracts saucer-shaped to cupular with a small triangular limb. Flowers 2–16 in umbels, 5-merous; umbels in axils or clustered at older nodes, shortly pedunculate, perulate; bracts saucer-shaped to cupular with a small triangular limb
    Calyx
    Calyx saucer-shaped to cupular or occasionally shortly tubular, almost entire, sometimes split by expanding corolla. Calyx saucer-shaped to cupular or occasionally shortly tubular, almost entire, sometimes split by expanding corolla
    Corolla
    Corolla tube much longer than lobes, opening with a V-split, usually pink to purplish; bud head greenish to white, darkening at maturity, commonly angled, ribbed, winged or appendaged; basal swelling well formed; lobes attenuate to spathulate, erect or generally reflexed. Corolla tube much longer than lobes, opening with a V-split, usually pink to purplish; bud head greenish to white, darkening at maturity, commonly angled, ribbed, winged or appendaged; basal swelling well formed; lobes attenuate to spathulate, erect or generally reflexed
    Disc
    Disk 5-lobed. Disk 5-lobed
    Pistil
    Style swollen opposite filaments, constricted above; stigma small, 0.4–1 mm across, obovoid to capitate.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Tapinanthus (Blume) Rchb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Onochie, C.F.A. [F41 38458], Nigeria 35185.000
    Lucas, G.Ll. [263], Kenya 35272.000

    First published in Deut. Bot. Herb.-Buch: 73 (1841)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Balle in Webbia 11: 583(1955).
    • Danser in Verh. Akad. Wetensch. Amst. Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 29: 107 (1933)
    • in Schultes f. Syst. Veg. 7: 1730 (1830)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Polhill & Wiens, Mistletoes Afr.: 183 (1998).
    • Webbia 11: 583 (1955) pro parte.
    • Balle in Webbia 11: 583 (1955) pro parte.
    • Verh. K. Akad. Wet., sect. 2, 29, 6: 107 (1933) pro parte.
    • Danser in Verh. K. Akad. Wet., sect. 2, 29, 6: 107 (1933) pro parte.
    • Bull. Soc. Bot. France 42: 267 (1895).
    • Tiegh. in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 42: 267 (1895).
    • Repert. Herb. Nom. Gen. Pl.: 73 (1841).
    • Repert. Herb. Nom. Gen. Pl.: 73 (1841).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Polh. & Wiens, Mistletoes Afr.: 183 (1998)
    • Tiegh. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 42: 267 (1895)
    • Repert. Herb. Nom. Gen. Pl.: 73 (1841)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0